im sure we all had a abnormal pap test result.
we never should have had it
IntraUterine Systems may not be inserted in:
* Women who are pregnant.
* Women with an active STD, or who have had PID within the past three months.
* Women who have sepsis (infection) following childbirth or abortion.
* Women with certain uterine abnormalities.
* Women with pelvic tuberculosis.
* Women with cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer awaiting treatment.
* Women with malignant trophoblast disease.
Side effects and complications
Location of device
Following insertion, the IUS may be expelled through the cervix. An expulsion rate of 4% was observed in the manufacturer's clinical trials, with most (3%) occurring in the first year of use. Expulsion is more common in younger women, women who have not had children, and when an IUS is inserted immediately after childbirth or abortion.
A rare but potentially serious complication is that of uterine perforation. This may occur either during the device's insertion, or from its later embedment into the myometrium (uterine wall) and subsequent migration through to the intra-abdominal cavity. Perforation can cause internal scarring, infection, or damage to other organs, and may require surgery. Uterine perforation has been reported at rates ranging from 1 to 2.6 per 1000 insertions. It is believed that perforations are significantly underreported, however, and actual perforation rates are likely higher.
Both expulsion and perforation result in loss of contraceptive cover and the position of the thread of the IUS should be self-checked at least once per menstrual cycle to verify that it is still in place, or, in the absence of menstrual cycles, once per month.
The string(s) may be felt by some men during intercourse. If this is problematic, the provider may tuck the strings behind the cervix, cut the strings shorter, or in more extreme cases cut the strings to level with the cervix. Cutting the strings even with the cervix prevents the woman from checking the device's correct placement, and may complicate removal.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is caused by certain sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PID is a serious condition that may result in infertility. In women who have STDs, an IUD will increase the risk of PID. Therefore, IUDs are not recommended for women at high risk of STDs.
Women who have more than one sexual partner, or whose partners have more than one sexual partner, are at increased risk for STDs. Younger women are statistically at higher risk for STDs.
An animal study suggested that progestin-only hormonal contraceptives such as Mirena might increase the risk of HIV transmission, because of the thinning of the vaginal walls caused by these methods. However, a number of studies of human populations showed that progestin contraceptive use does not increase the risk of acquiring HIV.
However, like the Pill and other non-barrier forms of contraception, the IUS offers no protection against sexually transmitted disease.