Re: Leaky Gut and Hypothyroid: Which Probiotics and Digestive Enzymes?
For the "references" go to the link. There is also very good information on Leaky Gut. Also, please research more about Saccharomyces boulardii. It appears to be very helpful to me.
Many naturally occurring substances help repair the intestinal mucosal surface or support the liver when stressed by enteric toxins. Basic vitamin and mineral supplementation should include all the B vitamins, retinol, ascorbate, tocopherol, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, manganese, and magnesium. More specialized nutritional, glandular and herbal therapies are considered below. These should not be used as primary therapies. Avoidance of enterotoxic drugs, treatment of intestinal infection or dysbiosis, and an allergy Elimination Diet
of high nutrient density that is appropriate for the individual patient are the primary treatment strategies for the Leaky Gut Syndromes. The recommendations that follow are to be used as adjuncts:
(1) Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a polypeptide that stimulates growth and repair of epithelial tissue. It is widely distributed in the body, with high concentrations detectable in salivary and prostate glands and in the duodenum. Saliva can be a rich source of EGF, especially the saliva of certain non-poisonous snakes. The use of serpents in healing rituals may reflect the value of ophidian saliva in promoting the healing of wounds. Thorough mastication of food may nourish the gut by providing it with salivary EGF. Purified EGF has been shown to heal ulceration of the small intestine .
(2) Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast originally isolated from the surface of lichee nuts. It has been widely used in Europe to treat diarrhea. In France it is popularly called "Yeast against yeast" and is thought to help clear the skin in addition to the gut. Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness for S. boulardii in the treatment or prevention of C. difficile diarrhea, Antibiotic
diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea[132, 133]. Experimental data suggest that the yeast owes its effect to stimulation of SIgA secretion. SIgA is a key immunological component of gut barrier function.
Passive elevation of gut immunoglobulin levels can be produced by feeding whey protein concentrates that are rich in IgA and IgG. These have been shown to be effective in preventing infantile necrotizing enterocolitis.
(3) Lactobacillus caseii var GG is a strain of lactobacillus isolated and purified in Finland. Like S.boulardii, Lactobacillus GG has been shown effective in the prevention of traveller's diarrhea and of Antibiotic
diarrhea and in the treatment of colitis caused by C. difficile. Lactobacillus GG limits diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection in children and in so doing improves the hyperpermeability associated with rotavirus infection.[136-139] The mechanism of action is unclear. The ability of other Lactobacillus preparations to improve altered permeability has not been directly tested, but is suggested by the ability of live cultures of L. acidophilus to diminish radiation-induced diarrhea, a condition directly produced by the loss of mucosal integrity.
(4) Glutamine is an important substrate for the maintenance of intestinal metabolism, structure and function. Patients and experimental animals that are fasted or fed only by a parenteral route develop intestinal villous atrophy, depletion of SIgA, and translocation of bacteria from the gut lumen to the systemic circulation. Feeding glutamine reverses all these abnormalities. Patients with intestinal mucosal injury secondary to chemotherapy or radiation benefit from glutamine supplementation with less villous atrophy, increased mucosal healing and decreased passage of endotoxin through the gut wall[140-143].
(5) Glutathione (GSH) is an important component of the anti-oxidant defense against free radical-induced tissue damage. Dietary glutathione is not well absorbed, so that considerable quantities may be found throughout the gut lumen following supplementation. Hepatic GSH is a key substrate for reducing toxic oxygen metabolites and oxidized xenobiotics in the liver. Depletion of hepatic glutathione is a common occurence in Leaky Gut Syndromes contributing to liver dysfunction and liver necrosis among alcoholics and immune impairment in patients with AIDS. The most effective way to raise hepatic glutathione is to administer its dietary precursors, cysteine or methionine. Anti-oxidant supplementation for Leaky Gut Syndromes should therefore include both GSH and N-acetyl cysteine. Because protozoa are more sensitive to oxidant stress than are humans and because most anti-parasitic drugs and herbs work by oxidative mechanisms, high dose anti-oxidant supplementation should be witheld during the treatment of protozoan infection, especially during treatment with Artemisia. (6) Flavonoids are potent, phenolic anti-oxidants and enzyme inhibitors with varied effects depending on the tissues in which they act. Quercetin and related flavonoids inhibit the release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Taken before eating, they may block allergic reactions which increase permeability. Catechins have been used in Europe to treat gastric ulcerations. The flavonoids in milk thistle (silymarin) and in dandelion root (taraxacum) protect the liver against reactive oxygen species.
(7) Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are the substrates for prostaglandin synthesis. Differential feeding of EFAs can profoundly affect prostanoid synthesis and the systemic response to endotoxin. In experimental animals, fish oil feeding ameliorates the intestinal mucosal injury produced by methotrexate and, additionally, blunts the systemic circulatory response to endotoxin. The feeding of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), promotes the synthesis of E-series prostaglandins, which decrease permeability. EFAs should be consumed in the most concentrated and physiologically active form to avoid exposure to large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids from dietary oils. Consumption of vegetable oils tends to increase the free radical content of bile and to exacerbate the effects of endotoxin.
(8) Fiber supplements have complex effects on gut permeability and bacterial composition. Low fibre diets increase permeability. Dietary supplementation with insoluble fibre, such as pure cellulose, decreases permeability. Dietary supplementation with highly soluble fibre sources, such as fruit pectin or guar gum, has a biphasic effect. At low levels they reverse the hyperpermeability of low residue diets, probably by a mechanical bulking effect which stimulates synthesis of mucosal growth factors. At high levels of supplementation, they produce hyperpermeability, probably by inducing synthesis of bacterial enzymes which degrade intestinal mucins[148-151]. For maximum benefit with regard to intestinal permeability, dietary fibre supplementation should therefore contain a predominance of hypoallergenic insoluble fibre.
(9) Gamma oryzanol, a complex mixture of ferulic acid esters of phytosterosl and other triterpene alcohols derived from rice bran, has been extensively researched in Japan for its healing effects in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulceration, thought to be secondary to its potent anti-oxidant activity[152, 153].