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Oxidation States, Reverse Alchemy, Electronegativity
 

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Jha Na Hana Views: 2,403
Published: 10 years ago
 

Oxidation States, Reverse Alchemy, Electronegativity


I was interested in finding out more for myself about Alchemy, Oxidation states like Newport speaks about, and is in the Orlee book "Mineral for the Genetic Code." So I did a wiki search and came up with some basic precepts listed below. I'll add in my own comments below in brackets.
 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covalent_bond


"Covalency is greatest between atoms of similar electronegativities"
"Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionic_bond


"An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation, which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal. Pure ionic bonding cannot exist: all ionic compounds have some degree of covalent bonding."
"Ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in solution, but not as a solid. They generally have a high melting point and tend to be soluble in water."

"For example, common table salt is sodium chloride. When sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are combined, the sodium atoms each lose an electron, forming cations (Na+), and the chlorine atoms each gain an electron to form anions (Cl−). These ions are then attracted to each other in a 1:1 ratio to form sodium chloride (NaCl).

    Na + Cl → Na+ + Cl− → NaCl "

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidation_state


"In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound."
"Oxidation states are typically represented by integers, which can be positive, negative, or zero."
"The highest oxidation state is +8 in the tetroxides of xenon, ruthenium and osmium, while the lowest is −4 for some elements in the carbon group."
"The increase in oxidation state of an atom through a chemical reaction is known as an oxidation; a decrease in oxidation state is known as a reduction. Such reactions involve the formal transfer of electrons, a net gain in electrons being a reduction and a net loss of electrons being an oxidation. For pure elements, the oxidation state is zero."

[So newport mentions how many elements within us are at the wrong oxidation state and thus become toxic. And it's not just the elements, but the molecules they make up, that determine the toxicity, the oxidation state, of each component atom. Mercury, Lead, MMS, other toxins, all mess with our natural oxidation states. Not only this, but general environmental toxins are ingested over the course of a lifetime. Like Jet Fuel with wrongly oxidized Tellurium and other crap.]

"The definition of the oxidation state listed by IUPAC is as follows:[1]

    Oxidation state: A measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a substance. It is defined as the charge an atom might be imagined to have when electrons are counted according to an agreed-upon set of rules: (1) the oxidation state of a free element (uncombined element) is zero; (2) for a simple (monoatomic) ion, the oxidation state is equal to the net charge on the ion; (3) hydrogen has an oxidation state of 1 and oxygen has an oxidation state of -2 when they are present in most compounds. (Exceptions to this are that hydrogen has an oxidation state of -1 in hydrides of active metals, e.g. LiH, and oxygen has an oxidation state of -1 in peroxides, e.g. H2O2); (4) the algebraic sum of oxidation states of all atoms in a neutral molecule must be zero, while in ions the algebraic sum of the oxidation states of the constituent atoms must be equal to the charge on the ion. For example, the oxidation states of sulfur in H2S, S8(elementary sulfur), SO2, SO3, and H2SO4 are, respectively: -2, 0, +4, +6 and +6. The higher the oxidation state of a given atom the greater its degree of oxidation; the lower the oxidation state the greater its degree of reduction."

[So here I begin to see how throwing lots of negatively charged atoms and molecules into the body via Reverse Alchemy, Manna salt, "charged" Vitamin C and carbon and MSM, might actually work to neutralize harmful positively oxidized(ionized) molecules and atoms within the body.]

"Here are general rules for simple compounds without structural formulae:[1]

   1. Any pure element (even if it forms diatomic molecules like chlorine, Cl2) has an oxidation state (OS) of zero. Examples of this are Cu or O2.
   2. For monatomic ions, the OS is the same as the charge of the ion. For example, S2- has an OS of -2, whereas Li+ has an OS of +1.
   3. The sum of OSs for all atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion is equal to the charge of the molecule or ion, so that the OS of one element can be calculated from the OS of the other elements. For example, in SO32- (sulfite ion), the total charge of the ion is -2, and each oxygen is assumed to have its usual oxidation state of -2. The sum of OSs is then OS(S) + 3(-2) = -2, so that OS(S) = +4.
   4. Do not confuse the formal charge on an atom with its formal oxidation state, as these may be different, and often are different, in polyatomic ions. For example, the charge on the nitrogen atom in ammonium ion NH4+ is +1, but the formal oxidation state is -3, the same as it is for nitrogen in ammonia. In this case, the charge on the atom changed, but its oxidation state did not."

"To sum up: The algebraic sum of oxidation states of all atoms in a neutral molecule must be zero, while in ions the algebraic sum of the oxidation states of the constituent atoms must be equal to the charge on the ion."

[I can feel there is more possible understanding to be had here. The implications for practical applications are just at the edge of my mind here. Feels like the tip of the proverbial iceberg. How can we use this knowledge to ascertain the oxidation states most commonly found as toxins when dealing with Parasites and Lyme, Mercury and Lead, other metals? It would be great to put these pieces together. However, luckily for us, we don't need to have a PhD in chemistry to use the recipes that work to get the stuff out. :) Thanks Newport!]

"There are two common ways of computing the oxidation state of an atom in a compound. The first one is the simple algebraic sum technique above, using in compounds that do not require a Lewis structure. The second is used for molecules when one has a Lewis structure."

"It should be remembered that the oxidation state of an atom does not represent the "real" charge on that atom: This is particularly true of high oxidation states, where the ionization energy required to produce a multiply positive ion are far greater than the energies available in chemical reactions. The assignment of electrons between atoms in calculating an oxidation state is purely a formalism, but is a useful one for the understanding of many chemical reactions."

[reading between the lines here is suggestive of what is going on with the industrial age and the push by Illuminati forces and those they serve to make technology as widespread as possible.]

"When a Lewis structure of a molecule is available, the oxidation states may be assigned by computing the difference between the number of valence electrons that a neutral atom of that element would have and the number of electrons that "belong" to it in the Lewis structure. For purposes of computing oxidation states, electrons in a bond between atoms of different elements belong to the more electronegative atom; electrons in a bond between atoms of the same element are split equally, and electrons in a lone pair belong only to the atom with the lone pair."

"Most elements have more than one possible oxidation state. Carbon has nine integer oxidation states, and there are also molecules in which the average degree of oxidation of several carbons is fractional."

[The Orlee book, Minerals for the Genetic Code, goes over possible oxidation states of each mineral essential to human life, and there's also a link I included at the bottom of the page showing all the elements.]

"Redox stands for reduction-oxidation, and are electrochemical processes involving electron transfer to or from a molecule or ion changing its oxidation state. This reaction can occur through the application of an external voltage or through the release of chemical energy."

[which explains how the F165 can "zap" mixes]

"Oxidation and reduction describe the change of oxidation state that takes place in the atoms, ions or molecules involved in an electrochemical reaction."

"The loss of electrons from an atom or molecule is called oxidation, and the gain of electrons is reduction. This can be easily remembered through the use of mnemonic devices. Two of the most popular are "OIL RIG" (Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain) and "LEO" the lion says "GER" (Lose Electrons: Oxidization, Gain Electrons: Reduction). For cases where electrons are shared (covalent bonds) between atoms with large differences in electronegativity, the electron is assigned to the atom with the largest electronegativity in determining the oxidation state."

[So, I take it we want MORE electrons...right?]

"The atom or molecule which loses electrons is known as the reducing agent, or reductant, and the substance which accepts the electrons is called the oxidizing agent, or oxidant. The oxidizing agent is always being reduced in a reaction; the reducing agent is always being oxidized. Oxygen is a common oxidizing agent, but not the only one. Despite the name, an oxidation reaction does not necessarily need to involve oxygen. In fact, a fire can be fed by an oxidant other than oxygen; fluorine fires are often unquenchable, as fluorine is an even stronger oxidant (it has a higher electronegativity) than oxygen."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronegativity


"Electronegativity, symbol χ (the Greek letter chi), is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself and thus the tendency to form negative ions.[1] An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance that its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it."

[Ahh, so this explains why Flouride and Bromide push out(and subjugate) Iodine. But my next question is how does taking Iodine begin to reverse this process? How are we reversing this process with other elements aswell, that normally should subjugate themselves to the toxic element we're trying to remove? My guess is frequencies from our guides via the Doctrine, but it'd be nice to have a confirmation, explanation even.]

"Electronegativity, as it is usually calculated, is not strictly a property of an atom, but rather a property of an atom in a molecule.[3] Properties of a free atom include ionization energy and electron affinity. It is to be expected that the electronegativity of an element will vary with its chemical environment."

[This also suggests that as we change the mineral ratios in our cells, fluids, tissues, we can affect the electronegativity of what we're trying to remove. Is this related to how we pull out toxins with lighter elements?]

"On the most basic level, electronegativity is determined by factors like the nuclear charge (the more protons an atom has, the more "pull" it will have on negative electrons) and the number/location of other electrons present in the atomic shells (the more electrons an atom has, the farther from the nucleus the valence electrons will be, and as a result the less positive charge they will experience -- both because of their increased distance from the nucleus, and because the other electrons in the lower energy core orbitals will act to shield the valence electrons from the positively charged nucleus)."

[Suggesting heavier elements are just that...can push their weight around and bully smaller folks.]

"In general, electronegativity increases on passing from left to right along a period, and decreases on descending a group. Hence, fluorine is undoubtedly the most electronegative of the elements (not counting noble gases) while caesium is the least electronegative, at least of those elements for which substantial data is available."

[Meaning the top right of the periodic table of elements has the most electronegativity(the bullies) and this decreases going towards the left and going down the chart.]

"In inorganic chemistry it is common to consider a single value of the electronegativity to be valid for most "normal" situations. While this approach has the advantage of simplicity, it is clear that the electronegativity of an element is not an invariable atomic property and, in particular, increases with the oxidation state of the element."

[So the more it's oxidized, the more of a bully it is. Oh gee no wonder the superoxidizers make such a mess. Sheesh.]
 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oxidation_states_of_the_elements

 

 

 
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