James, I don't think that is the absolute true either. There are cases of chronic mucosal candidiasis where there isn't any proof there were intestinal flora disturbance. One example is CMC. It is an immune problem even when the flora may play a protective role. Many people with AIDS develop severe mucosal candidiasis and isn't linked to Antibiotics . I know you think the flora is the main cause since long time ago, and I agree to some degree, but the immunologic root can not be ignored. Both, the innate and adaptive immunity are implied during chronic yeast infections. Your thoughts about low numbers of candida cells in the gut meaning not remote symptoms are logic since the mycotoxins are what cause it. Moreover, low numbers of candida cells in the gut can not manipulate the immune system as candida do when there is an overgrowth. There are also people who takes Antibiotics long term that never develops candidiasis in spite of alterations on the bacterial flora.