There is evidence that grapefruit seed extract in as good as nystatin and other antifungals:
J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):325-32. Related Articles, Links
The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: I. An in vitro agar assay.
Reagor L, Gusman J, McCoy L, Carino E, Heggers JP.
School of Medicine, University of Texas, Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.
OBJECTIVES: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) Citricidal has, in recent reports, been reported to be successful in combating a variety of common infectious agents. In our study, drops of concentrated grapefruit-seed extract were tested for antibacterial properties against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. DESIGN: Sixty-seven (67) distinct biotypes were tested for their susceptibilities to the Grapefruit-Seed-Extract as well as to 5 other topical antibacterials (Silvadene, Sulfamylon, Bactroban, Nitrofurazone, and Silvadene, Nystatin). Wells were punched into Mueller-Hinton agar plates, which were then inoculated with the organism to be tested; each well was then inoculated with one of the antibacterial agents. After an overnight incubation period, the plates were checked for zones of bacterial susceptibility around the individual wells, with a measured susceptibility zone diameter of 10 mm or more considered a positive result. RESULTS: The Grapefruit-Seed-Extract was consistently antibacterial against all of the biotypes tested, with susceptibility zone diameters equal to or greater than 15 mm in each case. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data thus suggest an antibacterial characteristic to Grapefruit-Seed-Extract that is comparable to that of proven topical antibacterials. Although the GSE appeared to have a somewhat greater inhibitory effect on gram-positive organisms than on gram-negative organisms, its comparative effectiveness against a wide range of bacterial biotypes is significant.
Stiles and colleagues used both agar diffusion and the serial broth dilution techniques to measure oregano oil’s activity against Candida albicans, the cause of the “yeast syndrome.” Oregano oil was compared to Nystatin and Ca/Mg caprylate, two common Candida treatments. At a concentration of just 0.91 mcg/ml (about 1 part/million), oregano oil had the same ZI as Nystatin: 22-25 mm. At 1.82 mcg/ml (about 2 parts/million), oregano oil had a ZI of 40-45 mm. Using the broth dilution technique to measure the quantity needed to kill 99.9 percent of the Candida, it took 45 mcg/ml of oregano oil, but 5,000 mcg/ml of the Ca/Mg caprylate.8
<<<8. Stiles, J. et al. “The inhibition of Candida albicans by oregano”. J Appl Nutr, 1995, 47:96-102.>>>
Origanum oil, which is used as a food flavoring agent, possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activities attributed to the high content of phenolic derivatives such as carvacrol and thymol. In the present study, antifungal properties of origanum oil were examined both in vitro and in vivo.
Using Candida albicans in broth cultures and a micro dilution method, comparative efficacy of origanum oil, carvacrol, nystatin and amphotericin B were examined in vitro.
Origanum oil at 0.25 mg/ml was found to completely inhibit growth of C. albicans in culture. Growth inhibitions of 75% and >50% were observed at 0.125 mg/ml and 0.0625 mg/ml level, respectively. In addition, both the germination and the mycelial growth of C.albicans were found to be inhibited by origanum oil and carvacrol in a dose-dependent manner.
Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of origanum oil was examined in an experimental murine systemic candidiasis model. Groups of mice infected with C. albicans were fed varying amounts of origanum oil in a final volume of 0.1 ml of olive oil.
The daily administration of 8.6 mg of origanum oil in 100 microliters of olive oil/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in 80% survivability, with no renal burden of C. albicans as opposed to the group of mice fed olive oil alon, who died within 10 days.
Similar results were obtained with carvacrol. The results from our study encourage examination of the efficacy of origanum oil in other forms of systemic and superficial fungal infections and exploration of its broad spectrum effect again other pathogenic manifestations including malignancy.
Received 27 June 2001; accepted 14 September 2001. [printed in "Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry" B228: 111-117, 2001. copyright 2001. Kluwer Academic Publishers.]